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Full text of "The Fate Of Man In The Modern World"

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usually thought: art was not at all " pure," it
played a role of service to society. Greek cul-
ture was at once popular and aristocratic. This
combination of popularity and organic quality in
culture is characteristic of earlier " organic"
epochs. In our day, with its tendencies to
collectivism., that is all changed. The masses
participate in culture. This is both right and
necessary : the masses must not remain in dark-
ness. In the past the masses participated in
culture by way of religion, and the culture of
the broad masses was almost exclusively a
religious culture. Religion was the meeting-
place of the masses with the aristocratic cul-
tural class. Only religion is capable of making
such a combination: neither philosophy nor
science, nor enlightenment neither art nor litera-
ture can do this. Deprived of religious basis,
any high-qualitative culture inevitably becomes
separated from popular life and an isolated
cultural elite is produced, which keenly feels its
uselessness to the people.

Humanist culture was never popular: it was
the culture of an upper, intellectual class which
had no real social foundation. The thoroughly
justified process of democratizing culture, of
communicating it to the popular mass, has the
natural reaction of lowering the qualitative level.
This process means that two things are happen-